Spain finally recognized Dutch independence in 1648. The Visigoths, having assimilated Roman culture and its language during their tenure as foederati, tended to maintain more of the old Roman institutions, and they had a unique respect for legal codes that resulted in continuous frameworks and historical records for most of the period between 415, when Visigothic rule in Hispania began, and 711 when it is traditionally said to end. Unlike in Santo Domingo, however, Spain would initially win this struggle, having learned the lessons of guerrilla warfare well enough to defeat this rebellion. However, there were no reforming impulses in the reign of Charles IV (1788 to abdication in 1808), seen by some as mentally handicapped. The loss of a vast colonial empire reduced Spain's overall wealth, and by 1820 it had become one of Europe's poorest and least-developed societies; three-fourths of the people were illiterate. Around 2500 BC, the nomadic shepherds known as the Yamna or Pit Grave culture conquered the peninsula using new technologies and horses while killing all local males according to DNA studies.  These were the most lucrative part of the booty, and constituted an excellent method of payment for the troops, so much so that many aceifas were real hunts for people. When armies throughout Spain pronounced themselves in sympathy with the revolters, led by Rafael del Riego, Ferdinand relented and was forced to accept the liberal Constitution of 1812. The King was prevented from either convening or proroguing the Cortes. The state founded by him is known as the Emirate of Cordoba. Vicious reprisals, famously portrayed by Goya in "The Disasters of War", only made the Spanish guerrillas angrier and more active; the war in Spain proved to be a major, long-term drain on French money, manpower and prestige. On the other side, right wing militias (such as the Falange) and gunmen hired by employers assassinated left wing activists. Socialists and radicals welcomed the new republic but conservatives feared and detested it. The Councils of Toledo debated the creed and liturgy of orthodox Catholicism, and the Council of Lerida in 546 constrained the clergy and extended the power of law over them with the approval of the pope.  Besides slaves of Iberian origin, the slave population also comprised the Ṣaqāliba (literally meaning "slavs", although they were slaves of generic European origin) as well as Sudanese slaves. However in 1520 there was a rebellion in Castile. In 1640, both Portugal and Catalonia rebelled. In the 6th century, Saint Isidore of Seville lived in Spain. When the French Revolution overthrew the Bourbons, a land war with France became a threat which the king tried to avoid. In early 1930 bankruptcy and massive unpopularity forced the king to remove Primo de Rivera. In 587 King Reccared became a Catholic and in 654 King Recceswinth made a single code of law for his kingdom.  The peninsula's economy expanded under Roman tutelage. Steep hilltops were favoured for their inaccessibility, and in southeastern Spain the custom of burying people below the floors of their houses replaced the collective practices of the Copper Age societies. Fearing that Britain's victory over France in the Seven Years' War (1756–63) threatened the European balance of power, Spain allied itself to France and invaded Portugal, a British ally, but suffered a series of military defeats and ended up having to cede Florida to the British at the Treaty of Paris (1763) while gaining Louisiana from France. By the 1770s the conservatives had launched a counterattack and used censorship and the Inquisition to suppress Enlightenment ideas. Palmer and Joel Colton, A History of the Modern World to 1815 (5th ed. Under Franco, Spain actively sought the return of Gibraltar by the United Kingdom, and gained some support for its cause at the United Nations. 1978) p 127. Other important sites are at Torralba and Ambrona (Soria), where elephants (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) were trapped accidentally in marshy ground and their remains scavenged. In the 15th and 16th centuries, trade flourished across the Atlantic between Spain and the Americas and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico via the Philippines. However, the sheer size of the Spanish Empire and the very long lines of communication made it difficult to control. The army managed to take control of some parts of Spain but in others, armed workers fought back. The Reconquista gathered momentum during the 12th century, leading to the establishment of the Christian kingdoms of Portugal, Aragon, Castile and Navarre and by 1250, had reduced Muslim control to the Emirate of Granada in the south-east of the peninsula. Cuba gained its independence and Spain lost its remaining New World colony, Puerto Rico, which together with Guam and the Philippines were ceded to the United States for 20 million dollars. Throughout the century, Castilian (what is also known today as Spanish) gained a growing prominence in the Kingdom of Castile as the language of culture and communication, at the expense of Leonese and of other close dialects. British railroad builders were pessimistic about the potential for freight and passenger traffic and did not invest. Then in 1348, the Black Death reached Spain and it decimated the population. The history of Spain dates back to the Antiquity when the pre-Roman peoples of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula made contact with the Greeks and Phoenicians and the first writing systems known as Paleohispanic scripts were developed.  The Visigoths, Suebi, Vandals and Alans arrived in Hispania by crossing the Pyrenees mountain range, leading to the establishment of the Suebi Kingdom in Gallaecia, in the northwest, the Vandal Kingdom of Vandalusia (Andalusia), and finally the Visigothic Kingdom in Toledo. In the late 17th century Spanish power continued to decline. Although until the 13th century religious minorities (Jews and Muslims) had enjoyed considerable tolerance in Castile and Aragon – the only Christian kingdoms where Jews were not restricted from any professional occupation – the situation of the Jews collapsed over the 14th century, reaching a climax in 1391 with large scale massacres in every major city except Ávila. The army lacked its own horses, oxen and mules for transportation, so these auxiliaries were operated by civilians, who might run away if conditions looked bad. Similar themes occur on portable objects made of bone and antlers and on stone plaques. Gold and silver were exported. The proximity of the Visigothic kingdoms to the Mediterranean and the continuity of western Mediterranean trade, though in reduced quantity, supported Visigothic culture. Election fraud (materialized in the so-called caciquismo) became ubiquitous, with elections reproducing pre-arranged outcomes struck in the Capital. Pieces of charcoal show that fire was known and used. The Iberians gave the Phoenicians silver in return for wine and olive oil as well as jewelry.  It was not the Army that defeated Napoleon, but the insurgent peasants whom Napoleon ridiculed as packs of "bandits led by monks" (they in turn believed Napoleon was the devil). Hispania was the name used for the Iberian Peninsula under Roman rule from the 2nd century BC.
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